From the scientific standpoint, cooperation plays the important role of adding and multiplying research facilities, both human and infrastructure, of the participating scientists in the cooperation. It often means the opportunity to work on research projects which would otherwise be difficult or impossible to undertake for any single member of the team of cooperation. This primary function of cooperation underlines its importance, in particular for scientists working in developing countries. Hence, the joint publication of scientific papers and the joint registration of patents on processes and products should be considered the best indicators of S&T cooperation. To cooperate (or to collaborate) means to work together with one another. In addition to this primary function, cooperation also helps to reduce the feelings of isolation of scientists in less developed countries. In some cases, Latin America could be an example, cooperation also contributes to strengthening the process of regional integration. It is important to point out that it is usual to include in cooperation programs, like that of the Latin American Academy of Sciences (ACAL), certain activities to promote or facilitate cooperation. Just to cite a few, we can mention information and communication via telematic networks; the establishment of networks of organizations, institutions and individuals in different areas of S&T; the organization of meetings, courses and workshops; the funding of travel to offer or to receive training; the holding of science policy meetings and workshops on the popularization, teaching and application of S&T.